• Sat. Jul 13th, 2024

NIGERIA’S TRIPLE THREAT: Battling Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, And Energy Crisis” — HYACINTH Nwafor


Jun 28, 2024

Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, is a nation of immense potential and rich natural resources. From its vibrant cities to its vast rural landscapes, Nigeria’s diversity is both a strength and a challenge. This West African giant is grappling with three interlinked crises that threaten its development and future: climate change, environmental degradation, and energy sustainability. These issues are not isolated; they intersect in complex ways that impact every aspect of Nigerian society, from agriculture and health to economic stability and social cohesion.

Climate change is reshaping the country’s weather patterns, bringing more intense and frequent extreme weather events such as floods and droughts. These changes threaten food security, livelihoods, and the very fabric of communities, particularly in rural areas where agriculture is the primary source of income. The environmental degradation driven by deforestation, pollution, and unsustainable land use further exacerbates these vulnerabilities, leading to the loss of biodiversity, soil fertility, and clean water resources.

At the same time, Nigeria’s energy sector is at a crossroads. Despite being rich in oil and gas, the country faces chronic energy shortages and unreliable electricity supply. The reliance on fossil fuels has not only contributed to environmental pollution but also left the nation vulnerable to global oil price fluctuations. Transitioning to renewable energy is not just an environmental imperative but a crucial step towards economic resilience and sustainable development.

In this feature story, we delve into the multifaceted challenges that Nigeria faces in the realms of climate, environment, and energy. We explore the impacts of these issues on the nation’s people and ecosystems, highlight the innovative solutions being implemented, and discuss the road ahead. Through practical examples and case studies, we illustrate how Nigeria is navigating these interconnected crises and striving to build a sustainable future.


Climate change poses a significant and escalating threat to Nigeria, affecting its diverse ecosystems, agriculture, water resources, and human health. The impacts of climate change are felt across the country, from the arid north to the humid south, disrupting traditional livelihoods and exacerbating existing social and economic challenges. Here, we delve into the specific manifestations of climate change in Nigeria and provide practical examples of its far-reaching consequences.


Nigeria’s climate varies significantly from the northern to the southern regions, with semi-arid conditions in the north and tropical climates in the south. Over the past few decades, the country has experienced a steady increase in average temperatures, which the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet) reports to be about 1.2 degrees Celsius since the early 20th century. This warming trend has led to more frequent and intense heatwaves, particularly affecting the northern regions.

In cities like Kano and Maiduguri, temperatures have soared, often exceeding 40 degrees Celsius during the hot season. These extreme heat conditions have severe implications for health, agriculture, and daily life. Farmers face reduced crop yields as heat stress affects both plant and animal productivity. For example, maize and sorghum, staple crops in the north, suffer from reduced growth rates and lower yields during prolonged heatwaves. Livestock, too, face increased mortality rates and decreased milk production, impacting food security and incomes.

Rainfall patterns in Nigeria have become increasingly unpredictable, with the rainy season starting later and ending earlier in many regions. In areas like the Middle Belt, where agriculture depends heavily on seasonal rains, this shift has devastating effects. Farmers in states such as Benue and Plateau report that traditional planting calendars are no longer reliable. Crops like yam, cassava, and millet are particularly vulnerable, with irregular rainfall leading to poor germination and crop failure.

In the southeastern state of Enugu, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) has noted a significant impact on rice production due to erratic rainfall. The late onset of rains delays planting, while sudden heavy downpours can flood fields, destroying young plants. These disruptions not only threaten food security but also exacerbate poverty and migration, as people leave rural areas in search of better opportunities.


Nigeria’s coastline, extending over 850 kilometers along the Atlantic Ocean, is increasingly threatened by rising sea levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects that sea levels could rise by up to one meter by the end of the century. This poses a substantial risk to coastal communities, especially in the densely populated Niger Delta region.

The Niger Delta is home to over 30 million people and significant oil infrastructure. Rising sea levels, combined with subsidence due to oil extraction, have led to severe coastal erosion and flooding. Communities in states like Bayelsa and Delta face daily threats from encroaching waters. Villages such as Agge in Bayelsa State have seen homes, schools, and farmland swallowed by the sea, forcing residents to relocate.

In addition to displacement, the intrusion of saltwater into freshwater systems disrupts agriculture and fisheries. Crops like rice, traditionally grown in the Delta’s freshwater swamps, are now at risk from increased soil salinity. Fishermen report declining fish populations as breeding grounds are destroyed by changing salinity levels and habitat loss.

Extreme Weather Events: Floods and Droughts

Nigeria has seen an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, including floods and droughts, which have profound implications for infrastructure, agriculture, and human settlements.

The 2022 floods that hit states such as Kogi, Benue, and Niger were among the worst in recent history. In Lokoja, the confluence city of the Niger and Benue rivers, floodwaters submerged entire neighborhoods, displacing thousands of residents. Critical infrastructure, including roads, bridges, and schools, was damaged or destroyed, hampering economic activities and access to essential services.

In rural areas, floods wash away topsoil, reducing agricultural productivity. Farmers in the floodplains of Kebbi State, one of Nigeria’s rice-producing hubs, lost entire harvests, leading to food shortages and increased prices. The destruction of homes and community assets also means that many families are left without shelter or means of livelihood, exacerbating poverty and vulnerability.

In contrast, the northern Sahelian regions, including states like Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa, experience recurrent droughts. These droughts reduce water availability for both people and livestock, leading to severe food and water shortages. The shrinking of Lake Chad, a critical water source for millions, exemplifies this crisis. The lake has lost over 90% of its surface area since the 1960s due to a combination of reduced rainfall and increased water use for irrigation.

Communities that depend on the lake for fishing, farming, and livestock rearing face existential threats. Reduced water levels have led to conflicts over scarce resources, exacerbating tensions among ethnic and occupational groups. The humanitarian crisis in the region, marked by displacement and food insecurity, is further compounded by these environmental stressors.

Climate change also has direct and indirect health impacts on Nigeria’s population. Increased temperatures and altered rainfall patterns influence the spread of diseases, affect water and air quality, and challenge health infrastructure.

Warmer temperatures and increased rainfall create ideal conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria and dengue fever. Regions like the coastal areas of Lagos and Rivers states have reported higher incidences of malaria, particularly during and after the rainy season. The Nigerian Ministry of Health has linked these spikes to changing climate conditions that extend the breeding season of mosquitoes.

Heatwaves contribute to a rise in heat-related illnesses, including heatstroke, dehydration, and cardiovascular problems. In urban centers like Abuja and Lagos, where heat islands amplify temperature extremes, residents, especially the elderly and children, are at heightened risk. Public health campaigns have been initiated to educate people on staying hydrated and recognizing symptoms of heat-related conditions, but healthcare facilities often struggle to cope with the increased demand for services during heatwaves.


Nigeria is actively working to address the impacts of climate change through various adaptation and mitigation strategies. These efforts involve government policies, community initiatives, and international cooperation.The Nigerian government has developed the National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action on Climate Change (NASPA-CCN) to guide the country’s response to climate impacts. This strategy emphasizes strengthening institutional capacities, promoting sustainable land use, and enhancing resilience in key sectors like agriculture, water resources, and health.

To cope with erratic rainfall and extreme weather, Nigerian farmers are adopting climate-smart agricultural practices. In the northern state of Kano, farmers are using improved irrigation techniques, drought-resistant crop varieties, and integrated pest management to sustain agricultural productivity despite changing climate conditions. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) supports these efforts by providing technical training and financial assistance to smallholder farmers.

In coastal areas, community-based adaptation projects are helping residents build resilience to sea level rise and coastal erosion. In Lagos, the Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF) works with local communities to restore mangrove forests, which serve as natural barriers against storm surges and erosion. These projects also provide alternative livelihoods, such as eco-tourism and sustainable fishing, reducing pressure on vulnerable coastal ecosystems.

Climate change presents a formidable challenge to Nigeria, affecting its environment, economy, and society. The examples highlighted here illustrate the widespread and multifaceted impacts of rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, sea level rise, and extreme weather events. While the challenges are significant, Nigeria’s efforts to adapt and mitigate these impacts demonstrate resilience and innovation. By embracing sustainable practices and fostering international cooperation, Nigeria can navigate the complex landscape of climate change and build a more resilient and sustainable future for its people.


Energy is at the heart of Nigeria’s developmental challenges. The country’s energy sector is characterized by a paradox: while Nigeria is rich in fossil fuel resources, it suffers from chronic energy shortages and unreliable electricity supply. Transitioning to a sustainable energy future is crucial for addressing both climate and environmental issues.


Nigeria’s energy mix is heavily reliant on fossil fuels, particularly oil and gas. As Africa’s largest oil producer and the holder of the ninth-largest natural gas reserves globally, Nigeria’s reliance on these resources has led to significant environmental and economic vulnerabilities.

The electricity sector is in crisis. Despite having an installed capacity of around 13,000 megawatts, Nigeria often generates less than 4,000 megawatts due to infrastructure inefficiencies, maintenance issues, and fuel shortages. This leads to widespread power outages, forcing businesses and households to rely on expensive and polluting diesel generators.


Transitioning to renewable energy presents a viable solution to Nigeria’s energy challenges. The country has abundant renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, hydro, and biomass. Harnessing these resources could provide reliable electricity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and environmental degradation.

Solar Energy:
Nigeria’s geographic location in the tropics provides high solar insolation, averaging 5.5 kWh/m²/day. This makes solar energy a promising option. Several solar power projects are underway, such as the 1.5 MW solar plant in Lagos and the 10 MW solar project in Katsina. These projects demonstrate solar energy’s potential to contribute significantly to the national grid and off-grid solutions.

Wind Energy:
Nigeria’s wind energy potential is particularly high in the northern regions. The 10 MW wind farm in Katsina is one of the country’s first major wind energy projects. While wind energy is still in its nascent stages in Nigeria, it holds promise for diversifying the energy mix and providing clean, renewable power.

Nigeria already relies on hydropower for a significant portion of its electricity, with major dams such as the Kainji and Jebba dams contributing to the national grid. However, there is still untapped potential, particularly for small and mini-hydropower projects that can serve rural communities.

Nigeria’s agricultural sector generates substantial biomass waste, which can be converted into energy. Biogas projects, such as the Lagos Waste to Energy Plant, which converts organic waste into electricity, highlight biomass’s potential to contribute to Nigeria’s energy needs while addressing waste management issues.


Realizing Nigeria’s renewable energy potential requires supportive policies and significant investment. The government has taken steps, such as the Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP) and the National Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy (NREEEP), aiming to increase renewable energy’s share in the energy mix and promote energy efficiency.

However, challenges remain. Investment in renewable energy infrastructure is still limited, and there are regulatory and financial barriers to overcome. Public-private partnerships, international cooperation, and innovative financing mechanisms are crucial for driving the energy transition.


While national policies and large-scale projects are essential, grassroots and community-driven initiatives are crucial for addressing climate, environmental, and energy challenges. Across Nigeria, local communities and organizations are taking action to build resilience and promote sustainability.


In response to climate change and environmental degradation, Nigerian farmers are adopting climate-smart agricultural practices. These practices aim to increase productivity, enhance resilience to climate impacts, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

In northern Nigeria, farmers are practicing agroforestry, integrating trees and shrubs into agricultural landscapes. This approach helps improve soil fertility, reduce erosion, and provide additional income sources through timber and non-timber forest products.

In the southeastern state of Enugu, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) promotes using improved crop varieties that are drought-resistant and high-yielding. These crops help farmers cope with changing rainfall patterns and ensure food security.


Community-based conservation efforts are vital for protecting Nigeria’s rich biodiversity and natural resources. Organizations like the Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF) work with local communities to establish protected areas, restore degraded ecosystems, and promote sustainable land use practices.

A notable example is the Lekki Conservation Centre in Lagos. This urban conservation project provides a sanctuary for wildlife and serves as an educational and recreational facility for residents and tourists. The centre’s initiatives include reforestation, wildlife protection, and environmental education programs.

In the Niger Delta, community-led initiatives tackle oil pollution. Organizations like Environmental Rights Action (ERA) and the Centre for Environment, Human Rights and Development (CEHRD) advocate for environmental justice, conduct clean-up activities, and support.


Addressing the interconnected challenges of climate change, environmental degradation, and energy sustainability in Nigeria is no small task. It requires a coordinated and multi-faceted approach that involves government action, private sector investment, community participation, and international cooperation.


(1) POLICY AND GOVERNANCE: Effective implementation of policies and regulations is often hindered by weak governance, corruption, and lack of enforcement. Strengthening institutions and ensuring transparency and accountability are crucial for progress.

(2) FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: Large-scale investments are needed to develop renewable energy infrastructure, implement conservation projects, and support climate adaptation efforts. Access to financing, both domestic and international, remains a significant barrier.

(3) Public Awareness and Education: Raising awareness and educating the public about climate, environmental, and energy issues is essential for driving behavior change and garnering support for sustainability initiatives.


(1) TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION: Advances in technology offer new opportunities for addressing Nigeria’s challenges. Innovations in renewable energy, climate-smart agriculture, and pollution control can drive sustainable development.

(2) INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION: Nigeria can benefit from international partnerships and agreements, such as the Paris Agreement on climate change. Collaboration with other countries, development agencies, and global organizations can provide technical assistance, funding, and knowledge sharing.

(3) YOUTH ENGAGEMENT: Nigeria’s youthful population is a powerful force for change. Engaging young people in climate action, environmental conservation, and sustainable energy initiatives can drive innovation and create a sustainable future.


Nigeria stands at a critical juncture. The challenges of climate change, environmental degradation, and energy sustainability are formidable, but they also present opportunities for transformation. By embracing a holistic and inclusive approach, Nigeria can navigate these challenges and build a resilient, sustainable, and prosperous future.

As Dr. Amina Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations and former Nigerian Minister of Environment, aptly puts it, “Sustainable development is not an option; it is the pathway to our collective survival and prosperity. Nigeria has the potential to lead the way in addressing these global challenges and creating a better world for all.”

The journey ahead requires commitment, collaboration, and innovation. It is a journey that involves every Nigerian, from policymakers to farmers, from business leaders to community activists. Together, they can create a future where Nigeria thrives in harmony with its climate, environment, and energy needs.

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